American University of Beirut

Copyright, Fair Use, and Reproduction

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Last edited October, 2016​​​​

​Policy Statement

​AUB Libraries provide access to their holdings for educational, personal, and non- commercial use, provided that the materials are properly cited. For publication, distribution, reproduction or other use of protected items which goes beyond fair use, written permission of the copyright holders and/or other rights’ holders is required(*). Publication includes, but is not limited to, print, film, slide presentation, video, television, and electronic transmission. Transmitting an image or file on the Internet is equivalent to reproducing and distributing that image in print.

Materials held by AUB Libraries may be protected by the Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries (PDF), the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and the Lebanese law for the Protection of Intellectual Property. Copyright regulations protect unpublished as well as published materials.

Section 107 of the Copyright Law of 1976: Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use:

Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phone records or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include-

  1. ​the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
  2. the nature of the copyrighted work;
  3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
  4. the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.


​Users of materials held by AUB Libraries are responsible for securing permission
from copyright owners and payment of such additional fees as the owners may require if the Library does not hold the copyright or if the material is not in the public domain. Users assume all responsibility for questions of copyright or other rights that may arise in copying and in the use made of the copy.

Permission to Use or Reproduce AUB Library Materials 

Other than use for personal, educational, or non-commercial purposes, each collection or type of material in the AUB Library may have different copyright or other reproduction restrictions placed on it. If a library user would like to use or reproduce materials from the University Libraries collections, he/she should contact the librarian in charge of the department that manages the materials, specifying what materials he/she is interested in. The librarian will inform the user of any copyright restrictions on a case-by-case basis. Moreover, the AUB Libraries does not support photocopying instead of purchasing copyrighted works where such photocopying would constitute an infringement under copyright laws and international agreements. The Library encourages users to abide by copyright laws and to seek to understand the fair use concept in order to exercise good judgment when fulfilling their educational needs.

Microfilm Access and Reproduction

  • ​AUB library users, alumni and visitors (with valid membership) are welcome to use the UL Microfilm collection.
  • Users can access and read the microfilms content using the library microfilm readers.
  • Users can scan selective content of a microfilm using the library digital scanning machines, except for content from manuscripts (MIC-MS) and Arabic books (MIC- A).
  • Scanning is regulated by Fair Use terms. For example, all reproduction should be done for a small part of a certain publication and should be made for research purposes only.
  • Use of personal phones and digital cameras for scanning of content on microfilm is not permitted unless a special permission was granted by the officer of the A/V services.
  • Users can access and read Manuscripts (MIC-MS) and Arabic books (MIC- A) on microfilm, but scanning and copying of any part of the content is restricted.
  • Copying a reproduction of manuscripts and Arabic books is handled by the Digital Initiatives and Imaging Department.
  • Copying and reproduction of long parts of a certain publication (more than one journal article or book chapter) should be discussed with A/V services officer and handled by Digital Initiatives and Imaging Department.
  • In case of not abiding by the aforementioned rules, users will be asked to delete copies that were made against the policy terms.

Digital Publications

  • ​For websites and digital files created or published by the library, the latter retains all rights, including copyright, of all data, images, and text. If the user wishes to use either published or unpublished materials from the Library collections in a publication, he/she must determine whether the work has passed into the public domain and is no longer under copyright protection, or find the copyright holder and get permission to reproduce the material in question (When Works Pass into the Public Domain: ​Cornell University).

Reproductions of AUB Library Collections

The requester must contact appropriate departments. Permission is granted to the requesting party for one-time use only, for the purposes stipulated in the request. Requests to publish must indicate the specific use intended. The requester is responsible for obtaining any required permission from the creator of the work or from the creator's heirs or executors.

Reproductions may not be reused for any other purpose, or published in any other format (including but not limited to: print, film, slide presentation, video, television, and electronic transmission); nor may it be transferred to another party without permission from the AUB Library.

The user assumes all responsibility for infringement of copyright or other rights and agrees that the AUB Library is free from liability for any infringement of use by the requester. The AUB Library reserves the right to refuse permission and reproductions to anyone who does not agree to these conditions. The Access Services Librarian, the Archives Librarian, or the Special Collections Librarian should be contacted for contact information, holdings, fees, request forms, conditions for use, and citation and credit formats.


Reproductions can be requested from the AUB community as well as outsiders for a fee. It is the library policy to charge all requesters regardless of their affiliations. Payment can be accepted in the form of cash, a check or a wire transfer.​


​A single copy can be made of any of the following for scholarly and research use:
  • ​A chapter of a book or 5% of a book.
  • One complete article from a journal issue.
  • Maximum 10 pages from a poem, short story, short literary work taken from a volume of short stories.
  • Up to 10% (max. 20 pages) per short book (without chapters), reports, pamphlet or standard specification.
  • One separate illustration, a chart, diagram, drawing, cartoon, photograph or map up to A4 size.​

Contact Us

For various questions, please try contacting us via social media first!
read more

Privacy Statement

We take data privacy seriously and adhere to all applicable data privacy laws and regulations.
read more

Copyright and Disclaimer

Written permission is needed to copy or disseminate all or part of the materials on the AUB website.
read more

Title IX, Non-Discrimination, and Anti-Discriminatory Harassment

AUB is committed to providing a safe, respectful, and inclusive environment to all members of its community.
read more