Though well established and understood by practitioners, policy-makers ignore the
interrelation between energy and water when developing energy and water policies, known as
the water-energy nexus This has led to the rise of complex challenges, especially in Lebanon,
due to the fact that policies and strategies in both sectors have often been developed in
isolation of each other. This resulted in policy fragmentation that has negatively affected the
sustainable development of both sectors.
The interdependencies and tradeoffs between water and energy require an integrative
approach to policy planning and resource management. This is not possible without
a supportive knowledge base, and an understanding of these interlinkages and systems.
Lebanon, to date, lacks a comprehensive assessment of energy consumption and efficiency in
water and wastewater service provision. Additionally, the policy frameworks and coordination
mechanisms in place do not facilitate the development of an integrated and efficient water energy
scheme, to alleviate pressures on both sectors. Accordingly, there is a need to develop
a comprehensive understanding of the links between water and energy within the current
Lebanese legal and operational framework, to assess barriers and opportunities for better integrated policies, management strategies, and solutions.
The study presented herein aims to address the issues raised above by examining the
role of energy, particularly electricity, in Lebanon’s water and wastewater service provision.
This includes an investigation and analysis of associated legal, social, environmental, and
economic aspects along with existing legal, policy, and institutional frameworks pertaining to
the water, wastewater, and energy sectors. The potential of and obstacles to mainstreaming
energy efficiency, particularly renewable energy, in the water and wastewater sectors are
also addressed along with a quantification of social, environmental, and economic impacts
of energy-use and efficiency of both the individual (homeowner) and water establishment.
Finally, a national roadmap for improved energy efficiency in the water and wastewater sector
is proposed and evidence is provided on the potential deployment of renewable energy in