Barbour, E.K., Sagherian, V., Talhouk, R., Talhouk, S. 2004. Cell-immunomodulation against Salmonella Enteritidis in herbal extracts-treated broilers
. Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 2 (1):1-9.
Water extracts of Calendula officinalis (1.5 X 104 µg/mL) and Melissa officinalis (3.0 ¥ 104 µg/mL) were administered orally, in defined volumes, to respective groups of chicken broilers between 10 to 21 days of age, while control broilers were administered a similar volume of plain drinking water. At 41 days of age, a volume of 0.1 mL of inactivated Salmonella enteritidis (SE) culture, adjusted to 3% transmittance at a wave length of 540 nm, was injected intradermally in the right footpad of each assigned bird in the three treatments, while the left footpad was left as control, injected with 0.1 mL of plain sterile saline. Twenty-four hours after SE administration, four slides, each carrying 6 tissue sections (3 µm thickness), were prepared of each footpad. Immunohistochemistry technique, based on mouse monoclonal biotinylated antibodies against CD3-T cells, CD4-T cells, and IgM-marked B cells, was used to count these cells in the first three slides, and H & E staining was applied on the fourth slide to count the neutrophils. The C. officinalis-treated birds had the highest mean CD3-cell count (P < 0.05) and the lowest mean neutrophil count (P < 0.05) among the three treatments. No chemotactic presence of CD4 or IgM-marked B cells was noticed at the SE-administered right footpad of all individual birds of the three treatments. In addition, the left control footpad of all birds, injected with plain saline, showed a complete absence of the four cell types. This work concludes that cell-immunomodulation against SE was present only in C. officinalis–treated birds, a finding worthy of future investigation directed toward control of zoonoses caused by SE.