Gergis, D., Development of essential oil-based vaginal douche against Candidiasis
Candida albicans is an opportunistic, potentially pathogenic yeast with the ability to cause vaginal candidiasis. The work is divided into two major experiments, the Origanum syriacum experiment and the Origanum ehrenbergii experiment.
In the Origanum syriacum experiment, two in vitro and two in vivo experiments were carried out. In the first in vitro experiment four materials of most commonly used commercial douches in addition to undiluted essential oil of Origanum syriacum were tested against 14 human vaginal Candida albicans isolates. In the second in vitro experiment, the synergistic effects between different dilutions of Origanum syriacum essential oil and the seed water extract of Pimpinella anisum (anise) against the 14 human isolates were tested. In the first in vivo experiment, the isolate with the highest colonization to hamster's vagina among the 14 human Candida albicans isolates was selected. The second in vivo trial tested the ability of essential oil of Origanum syriacum in preventing the colonization of hamsters' vagina by Candida albicans. Results of the first in vitro experiment showed that the undiluted essential oil of Origanum syriacum produces the largest mean inhibition zone diameter compared to 4 commercial douche material (P<0.05). The second in vitro experiment proved the failure in synergism between Origanum syriacum essential oil and anise seed water extract. The first in vivo experiment showed a higher ability of one of the 14 human Candida albicans isolates to colonize the epithelium of hamster's vagina; however, the second in vivo experiment showed that an intravaginal douche material developed against Candida albicans colonization in hamsters, based on a dilution of essential oil of Origanum syriacum, resulted in complete elimination of vaginal Candida albicans.
In the Origanum ehrenbergii experiment, two tests were carried out. First, different essential oil dilutions in saponin emulsifier of wild and cultivated Origanum ehrenbergii were tested in-vitro, using the Single Disc Diffusion Assay, to find the least dilution that will still result in inhibition of Candida albicans growth. The second work on Origanum ehrenbergii was performed in-vivo, where mice vaginally infected with Candida albicans were treated with essential oil of cultivated Origanum ehrenbergii at a dilution of 1:240.