Hussein Halawi: “Vaccines and essential oil in respective protection and treatment of chicken and rabbits ailments”, March, 2005.
The first study determined the anti- inflammatory effect induced by Origanum ehrenbergii essential oil on Staphylococcus aureus skin infection in rabbits. Experimental rabbits were divided into two groups with 5 rabbits per group. Group1 was challenged with 0.1 ml Staphylococcus aureus intradermally and treated twice topically with 1 % Origanum ehrenbergii essential oil diluted in 40 % DMSO/ water. Group 2 received the same challenge as Group 1 but without any treatment. After 24hours, the mean weight of the ear lesion in the non-treated rabbits was larger than the mean weight of the ear lesion in the treated rabbits (2.72g, 1.24g respectively, p< 0.05). In the second study, serological profiling for disease diagnosis and for vaccine evaluation was conducted for the first time in Lebanon on free- range poultry farms situated in Jezzine area. The humoral immune responses in the chicken sera showed disease exposure to IBV, NDV, EDS, Mg and IBDV. The immune response of chicken towards an inactivated trivalent vaccine was serologically determined by testing paired serum samples from the vaccinated farms. According to the ELISA system, no significant difference in humoral antibody level was observed after 21 days of vaccination. Furthermore, the immune responses to the trivalent vaccine were both qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by reacting the protective polypeptides in the pooled farm sera with the antigens of the trivalent vaccine by Western Immunoblotting. The qualitative immune response was observed in the appearance of new antibodies to the F protein (60KDa) in NDV, and the appearance of new antibodies to the membrane glycoprotein GP36 in IBV. In addition, there were more quantitative levels of antibodies to the large (L) protein (248 KDa) and the matrix (M) protein (40 KDa) in NDV and to the nucleocapsid protein (51 KDa) and the membrane glycoprotein GP28 (28 KDa) in the case of IBV three weeks after vaccination compared to levels at the time of vaccination (P< 0. 05).