Ghosn, MW, Saliba, NA, Talhouk, SY. "Chemical composition of the needle-twig oils of Pinus brutia Ten
". Journal of Essential Oil Research 2006 18 (4):445-447.
The variation in composition of the essential oils produced from different ratios of needles to terminal twigs of Pinus brutia Ten. in Lebanon was examined by GC and GC/MS. As the mass of the needles increased from 0-100% with respect to twig contents, the % oil yield decreased and the composition changed. Pure needle oil was found to be much richer in oxygenated compounds than that of pure twig oil with a corresponding reduction in amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons. Marker compounds were chosen in order to show the chemical variation of the oils with respect to different ratio of needles to twigs distilled. By computing both physical and chemical variations, it is suggested that a fair compromise between the yield and the concentration of oxygenated compounds is the 75% needle 25% twig mixture, which appears to be the most suitable proportion of plant material for pine oil production from P. brutia.