American University of Beirut





    As part of the "Testing Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Prevention and Intervention (Programs) to Generate Best Practices int he Region" project, AUB-TCRG organized a workshop entitled: "Towards Interventions for Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: A writing Proposal workshop" on May 12-13, 2014 with the participation of  25 tobacco control researchers from the region.

    • Evaluation of the impact of pictorial warning on cigarette packs on initiation of smoking and quitting intentions (Health Warning Presentation-Iran)
    • Controlling use of narghile smoking Testing the impact of Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) of a School-based prevention program  (Read more)​

    • Generating evidence to support policies for raising taxes on tobacco products in Lebanon (Tobacco Lecture) (Elasticity Definition)

    • Determinants and consequences of smoking the waterpipe: An extended research agenda
    • Smoke-free policies in Lebanon: Lessons learned from existing experiences and recommendations for the future
    • Exploring attitudes towards women’s waterpipe smoking


    ​Database for waterpipe tobacco smoking literature

    Selected publications since 2003

    • Ben Taleb Z, Maziak W, Jawad M, Afifi R, Nakkash R, Akl E, Ward K, Salloum R, Barnett T, Primack B, Sherman S, Cobb C, Sutfin E, Eissenberg T. Consensus Statement on Assessment of Waterpipe smoking in Epidemiological Studies. 2016. Tobacco Control accepted on April 20, 2016.
    • Alaouie H, Nakkash R, Afifi R. Porsche Design’s Shisha 2 hits the Lebanese market. (Ad Watch). Tobacco Control, 2016 Feb 10. pii: tobaccocontrol-2015-052709. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052709. [Epub ahead of print]
    • Sibai AM, Iskandarani M, Darzi A, Nakkash R, Saleh S, Fares S,  Houalla NC. Cigarette smoking in a Middle-Eastern country and its association with hospitalization rates: a nation-wide cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 6:e009881. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009881
    • Jawad M, Nakkash RT, Hawkins B, Akl EA. (2015). Gaining Insights into the Waterpipe Tobacco Industry: Participant Observation and a Cross-Sectional Survey of Products at a Trade Exhibition. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, pii: ntv155.
    • Salloum RG, Maziak W, Hammond D, Nakkash R, Islam F, Cheng X, Thrasher JF. (2015) Eliciting preferences for waterpipe tobacco smoking using a discrete choice experiment: Implications for product regulation. BMJ Open, 5(9):e009497. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009497
    • Jawad M., Nakkash RT., Hawkins B. and Akl,  EA. (2015) Waterpripe industry products and marketing strategies: analysis of an industry trade exhibition. Tobacco Control, 1-19. (In Press). pii: tobaccocontrol-2015-052254. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052254
    • Jawad  M , Afifi R, Mahfoud Z, Bteddini D, Haddad P, Nakkash R(corresponding). (2015) Validation of a simple tool to assess risk of waterpipe tobacco smoking among 6th and 7th graders in Lebanon. Journal of Public Health(Oxford, England), Apr.23 piifdvo48
    • Petticrew M, Lee K, Nakkash R, Haidar A. (2015) “Fighting a hurricane”:  Efforts by the tobacco industry to counter the perceived threat of Islam. American Journal of Public Health. 105(6):1086-1093
    • Jawad M, El Kadi L, Mugharbil S, Nakkash R (corresponding). (2015)  Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis. Tobacco Control. 24 Suppl 1:i60 – i65 Doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051911
    • Jawad M, Nakkash R, Mahfoud Z, Bteddini D, Haddad P, Afifi R. (2015) Parental smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke are associated with waterpipe smoking among youth: results from a national survey in Lebanon. Public Health.  129(4):370-376
    • Nakkash R, Al Mulla A, Torossian L, Karhily R, Shuayb L, Mahfoud Z, Janahi I, Al Ansari A, Afifi R. (2014) Challenges to Obtaining Parental Permission for child participation in a School-based Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Prevention Intervention in Qatar. BMC Medical Ethics.15:70 doi:10.1186/1472-6939-15-70
    • Salloum RG , Nakkash R, Myers AE, Eberth JM,& Wood KA. (2014) Surveillance of Tobacco Retail Density in Beirut, Lebanon Using Electronic Tablet Technology. Tobacco Induced Diseases. 12(1): 3 doi:  10.1186/1617-9625-12-3
    • Maziak W, Nakkash R, Bahelah R, Husseini A, Fanous N, & Eissenberg T. (2014).Tobacco in the Arab World; old and new epidemics amidst policy paralysis. Health Policy and Planning. 29(6):784-794 Doi:10.1093/heapol/czt055.
    • Nakkash R, Afifi R, & Maziak M. (2014). Research and activism for tobacco control in the Arab World. The Lancet. 383:9915), 392-393.
    • Chaaban J, Salti N, & Naamani N. (2014).The economics of tobacco in Lebanon: an estimation of the social costs of tobacco consumption. Substance Use and Misuse. 1-8.
    • Sepetdjian, E, Abdul Halim, R, Salman, R, Jaroudi, E, Shihadeh, A. & Saliba, N.A. (2013).Phenolic Compounds in Particles of Mainstream Waterpipe Smoke. Nicotine Tobacco Research. 15, 1107-1112.
    • Sibai AM (corresponding author), Costanian C, Tohme R, Assaad S, & Hwalla N (2013). Physical activity in adults with and without diabetes: from the 'high-risk' approach to the 'population-based' approach of prevention. BMC Public Health, 13:1002 (DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-131002).
    • Isma’eel HA, Harbieh B, Tamim H, Nasreddine L, Naja F, Sibai AM, Adra N, Badr K, Hwalla N (2013). Discrepancies between two lipid-lowering guidelines for CVD prevention in seemingly healthy individuals—case study Lebanon. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy, 3(3): 129-136.
    • Khalil J, Afifi R, Fouad FM, Hammal F, Jarallah Y, Mostafa M, & Nakkash R (corresponding). (2013). Women and waterpipe tobacco smoking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Allure or offensiveness. Women and Health, 53(1):100-116. doi:10.1080/03630242.2012.753978.
    • Salloum RG, Nakkash R, Myers AE, Wood KA, & Ribisi KM. (2013). Point-of-sale tobacco advertising in Beirut, Lebanon following a national advertising ban. BMC Public Health, 13(1):534. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-534.
    • Alaaeddine G, Al Kuhaimi T, Al Assaad R, Dany M, Diab R, Hanna E, Hirmas N, Ismail H, Mahmassani D, Sleiman Tellawi R, & Nakkash R. (corresponding). (2013). Assessing knowledge and attitudes of owners or managers of hospitality venues regarding a policy banning indoor smoking. Public Health, 127(5):461-466. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2013.01.015.
    • Salti N, Chaaban J, Nakkash R, & Alaouie H. (2013). The effect of taxation on tobacco consumption and public revenue in Lebanon. Tobacco Control. doi:10.1136/050703.
    • Chaaya M, Alameddine M, Nakkash R, Afifi R, Khalil J, & Nahhas G. (2013). Students’ attitude and smoking behaviour following the implementation of a university smoke-free policy: A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 3(4). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002100.
    • Maziak W, Nakkash R, Bahelah R, Husseini A, Fanous N, Eissenberg T. (2013).Tobacco in the Arab World; old and new epidemics amidst policy paralysis. Health Policy and Planning. doi:10.1093/heapol/czt055.
    • Alaouie H, Afifi RA, Haddad P, Mahfoud Z, & Nakkash R (corresponding). (2013). Effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs among Lebanese school and university students.  Tobacco Control. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050745.
    • Afifi R, Khalil J, Fouad F, Hammal F, Jarallah Y, Abu Farhat H, Ayad M, Nakkash R (corresponding). (2013). Social Norms and attitudes linked to waterpipe use in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Social Science and Medicine. Accepted.
    • Nakkash R, Afifi, R & Maziak, W. Research and Activism for Tobacco Control in the Arab World. (2013) The Lancet (Commentary). Accepted.
    • Primack BA, Rice KR, Shensa AS, Carroll MV, DePenna EJ, Nakkash R, & Barnett T. (2012). U.S. Hookah tobacco smoking establishments advertised on the internet. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42(2):150-156. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.10.013.
    •  Shihadeh, A., Salman, R., Jaroudi, E., Saliba, N., Sepetdjian, E., Blank, M.D., Cobb, C.O., Eissenberg, T Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, " tar" and nicotine yields.(2012).  Food and chemical toxicology. 50:1494-1498.
    • Sepetdjian, E., Abdul Halim, R., Salman, R., Jaroudi, E., Shihadeh, A., Saliba, N., (2012). Phenolic Compounds in Particles of Mainstream WaterpipeSmoke.Nicotine and Tobacco Research Advance Access. 
    • Abyad, C (2011). Effects of Smoking on Fertility and Pregnancy. Lebanese Journal for Nursing, issued by The Syndicate of Nurses in Lebanon. January 2011 issue number 2 (33-36)
    • Hamdan AL, Sibai AM, Mahfoud L, Oubari D, Ashkar J, Fuleihan N (2011). Short term effect of hubble bubble smoking on voice. J Laryngology Otology, 125(5): 486-491.
    • Hirshhcom N, S. Shatenstein. Best of the Lighter Side (1992-2009). Tobacco Control vol. 21, 2012
    • Hirshhcom N, A. Shihadeh. "A Pleasure Among Friends" The Waterpipe Become Popular. P.H. The Yale Journal of Public Health vol. 7, 2010
    • Hirshhcom N. Tobacco Use and Personal Responsibility. Globallink public page, (Accessed 7 January 2010)
    • Hirshhcom N. Public Health Haiku ('Dehydration', one of our four selected in international competition). Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health vol. 64, 20142
    • Hirshhcom N. Medicine Posthumous. Diagnosing the Illnesses of Famous Persons Long Dead. The Winter Journal of the Society of Medical Writers vol. 8, 2009-2010 
    • Katurji, M., Daher, N., Sheheitli, H., Saleh, R., & Shihadeh, A. “Direct measurement of toxicants delivered to waterpipe users in the natural environment using a real-time in-situ smoke sampling (RINS) technique.” Journal of Inhalation Toxicology. In press.
    • Mahfoud, Z., Saad, S., Haddad, P., & Chaaya, M. (2010). Determinants of change in paternal smoking trends during pregnancy among fathers. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 89(4), 587-591.
    • Nakkash, R., Khalil, J., Chaaya, M., & Afifi, R. A.  (2010). Building research evidence for policy advocacy: A qualitative evaluation of existing smoke free policies in Lebanon. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 22(3), 168S-174S.
    • Afifi, R. A., Nakkash, R. T., & Khawaja, M.  (2010). Social capital, women’s autonomy and smoking among married women in low-income urban neighborhoods of Beirut, Lebanon. Women’s Health Issues, 20(2), 156-167.
    • Sepetdjian, E., Saliba, N., & Shihadeh, A. (2010). Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48 (11), 3242-3245.
    • Cobb, C., Ward, K. D., Maziak, W., Shihadeh, A. L., & Eissenberg, T. (2010). Waterpipe tobacco smoking: an emerging health crisis in the United States. American Journal of Health Behavior, 34, 275-285.
    • Cobb, C., Ward, K., Maziak, W., Shihadeh, A. & Eissenberg, T. (2010). Waterpipe tobacco smoking: An emerging health crisis in the United States. American Journal of Health Behavior, 34, 275-285.
    • Khalil, J. (2010). News analysis - Lebanon: Diet hookah. Tobacco Control, 19, 351-354
    • Nakkash, R., & Khalil, J. (2010). Health warning labeling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Tobacco Control, 19, 235-239.
    • Afifi, R. A., Yeretzian, J. S., Rouhana, A., Nehlawi, M. T., & Mack, A. (2009). Neighborhood influences on narghile smoking among youth in Beirut. European Journal of Public Health. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckp173.
    • Khalil, J., Heath, R. L., Nakkash, R., Afifi, R. A. (corresponding author) (2009). The tobacco health nexus? Health messages in narghile advertisement. Tobacco Control (Ad Watch), 18, 420-421. doi:10.1136/tc.2009.030148.
    • Yeretzian, J. S., & Afifi, R. A. (corresponding author) (2009).  ‘It won’t happen to me’: The knowledge attitude nexus in adolescent smoking. Journal of Public Health. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdp03.1
    • Maziak, W., Rastam, S., Ibrahim, I., Ward, K. D., Shihadeh, A., Eissenberg, T. (2009). CO exposure, puff topography, and subjective effects in waterpipe tobacco smokers. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 11, 806-811.
    • Daher, N., Saleh, R., Jaroudi, E., Sheheitli, H., Badr, T., Sepetdjian, E., Al Rashidi, M., Saliba, N., & Shihadeh, A. (2009). Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors. Atmospheric Environment, 44, 8-14.
    • Eissenberg, T., & Shihadeh, A. (2009). Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: Direct comparison of toxicant exposure. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 37, 518-523.
    • Maziak, W., Rastam, S., Ibrahim, I., Ward, K. D., Shihadeh, A., & Eissenberg, T. (2009). CO exposure, puff topography, and subjective effects in waterpipe tobacco smokers. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 11, 806-811.
    • Saade, G., Abou Jaoude, S., Afifi Soweid, R. (corresponding author), Warren, C. W., & Jones, N. R. (2008).  Patterns of tobacco use: Results from GYTS in Lebanon. The Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 14(6), 1280-1289.
    • Al Rashidi, M., Shihadeh, A., & Saliba, N. A. (2008). Volatile aldehydes in the mainstream smoke of the narghile waterpipe. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 3546-3549.
    • Monzer, B., Sepetdjian, E., Saliba, N., & Shihadeh, A. (2008). Charcoal emissions as a source of CO and carcinogenic PAH in mainstream narghile waterpipe smoke. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 2991-2995.
    • Saleh, R., &Shihadeh, A. (2008). Elevated toxicant yields with narghile waterpipes smoked using a plastic hose. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 1461–1466.
    • Sepetdjian, E., Shihadeh, A., & Saliba, N. (2008). Measurement of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in narghile waterpipe tobacco smoke. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 1582-1590.
    • Tamim, H., Al-Sahab, B., Akkary, G., Ghanem, M., Tamim, N., Roueiheb Z. E., Kanj, M., & Afifi, R. (2007). Cigarette and nargileh smoking practices among school students in Beirut, Lebanon. American Journal of Health Behavior, 31(1), 56-63.
    • Maziak, W., Nakkash, R., & Afifi Soweid, R. A.  (2006). Lebanon: Young stars turn to smoke (news analysis). Tobacco Control, 15, 80-81.
    • Shihadeh, A., & Azar, S. (2006). A closed-loop control playback smoking machine for generating mainstream tobacco smoke. Journal of Aerosol Medicine, 19(2), 137-147.
    • Afifi Soweid, R. (2005).  Lebanon: Water pipe line to youth (news analysis). Tobacco Control, 14, 363-364.
    • Maziak, W., Ward, K. D., Afifi Soweid, R. A., & Eissenberg, T.  (2005). Standardizing questionnaire items for the assessment of waterpipe use in epidemiological studies.  Public Health, 119(5), 400-404.
    • Shihadeh, A., Antonius, C., & Azar, S. (2005). A portable, low-resistance puff topography instrument for pulsating, high flow smoking devices. Behavior Research Instruments, Methods, Computers, 37(1), 186-191.
    • Shihadeh, A. , & Saleh, R. (2005). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, “tar”, and nicotine in the mainstream smoke aerosol of the narghile water pipe. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 43(5), 655-661.
    • Maziak, W., Ward, K. D., Afifi Soweid, R. A., & Eissenberg, T.  (2004). Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe: A re-emerging strain in a global epidemic. Tobacco Control, 13, 327-333.
    • Shihadeh, A., Azar, S., Antonius, C., Haddad, A. (2004).  Towards a topographical model of narghile water-pipe café smoking. Biochemistry, Pharmacology, and Behavior, 79(1), 75-82.
    • Shihadeh, A. (2003). Investigation of the mainstream smoke aerosol of the argileh water pipe,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, 41, 143-152.

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